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Lambda在线 > 欧菲博客 > 将http换成https

将http换成https

欧菲博客 2020-06-28

为了加入亚马逊广告联盟大家庭,不得已去申请https证书,这玩意是经过rss加密的,据说更安全。

一、ssl证书申请

申请证书的网址是https://freessl.cn,现在不弄个https浏览器都会认为网站不安全了。

在上面的证书网站上注册了,并且写入了本网站的域名之后,跳出对话框,下载一个叫做KeyManager的软件,哇塞要设置主密码,而后软件给出一个无比复杂的密码之后一闪而过,都没看清,这个密码应该是用来找回主密码用的,KeyManager说不怕,可以找回,暂且不表。

接下来回到fressl.cn进行域名验证,根据提示信息到阿里云(我的域名服务商)去添加一条txt解析,并且删除了一些废弃的cname,来让中国大陆、香港和美国的服务器都能没有歧义地访问我的网站。

验证之后有个10分钟左右就领到证书,如果是在KeyManager中操作(申请、验证)的话,到这一步会有一个按钮叫“一键部署”,点下去就是一片白屏完全卡主。到fressl.cn下载了证书,安装到了网站后台,结果没有用。猜测是缺少了公钥和私钥,只有chain。

放弃。(后来的事情证明,是当时没有完全理解freessl.cn的套路,上面提到的一套文件都可以get到)

看到阿里云上提供免费证书,果断过去搞。

购买一个免费的证书,颁发过程类似,也需要域名验证,发下来的证书简要信息如下:

实例:cas-cn-45918knmh107

证书名称:cert-2431434

证书来源:购买

证书类型:DV

绑定域名:www.oaphy.com,oaphy.com

颁发厂商:Symantec

有效期限:1年

签发时间:2019年7月29日

到期时间:2020年7月28日

二、ssl证书安装

在/etc/apache2下建立/cert文件夹,把下载的公钥私钥和证书全都ftp上去,修改sites-available文件夹下的000-default.conf

增加

SSLProtocal all -SSLv2

SSLCertificateFile 公钥文件(crt后缀)

SSLCertificateKeyFile 私钥文件(key后缀)

SSLCertificateChainFile 证书文件(crt后缀)

启动ssl服务

sudo a2enmod ssl

结果发现访问网站虽然已经变成https风格,但还是被浏览器提示不安全,在https://www.geocerts.com/ssl-checker检查后发现问题

Certificate Common Name (CN) and Hostname Match?

证书公共名与主机名不一致。

无奈去修改主机名,改成www.oaphy.com,吊销原证书,重新申请证书。

折腾了半天,原来不是证书问题而是端口问题,在用KeyManager软件中的“证书扫描”功能时意外发现,扫80端口的证书就是对的,扫443端口的证书就是以前的错的那个。

修改了文件default-ssl.conf后在443端口的证书

这时候意识到去修改/etc/apache2/sites-available/default-ssl.conf,将公钥私钥和证书文件的位置都改好,之后就大功告成了。

现在可以正常访问清爽的https风格的网站,但是http风格的就不行了。如果不处理http问题,可能会出现You’re speaking plain HTTP to an SSL-enabled server port问题,意思是在http协议端口使用了https协议语法。

原因是在上面漫长的调试过程中修改了80端口配置,让他也在ssl模式下工作,再回到000-default.conf中去,把<VirtualHost *:80>标签里的ssl相关设定统统注释掉。

为了能重定向http到https,还需要在这里继续加入下面的三行

  1. RewriteEngine on

  2. RewriteCond   %{HTTPS} !=on

  3. RewriteRule   ^(.*)  https://%{SERVER_NAME}$1 [L,R]

并启动重定向

sudo a2enmod rewrite

保存退出,重启apache2,就可以了。

 

附录:

000-default.conf





default-ssl.conf
<IfModule mod_ssl.c>
	<VirtualHost _default_:443>
		ServerAdmin webmaster@localhost

		DocumentRoot /var/www/html

		# Available loglevels: trace8, ..., trace1, debug, info, notice, warn,
		# error, crit, alert, emerg.
		# It is also possible to configure the loglevel for particular
		# modules, e.g.
		#LogLevel info ssl:warn

		ErrorLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/error.log
		CustomLog ${APACHE_LOG_DIR}/access.log combined

		# For most configuration files from conf-available/, which are
		# enabled or disabled at a global level, it is possible to
		# include a line for only one particular virtual host. For example the
		# following line enables the CGI configuration for this host only
		# after it has been globally disabled with "a2disconf".
		#Include conf-available/serve-cgi-bin.conf

		#   SSL Engine Switch:
		#   Enable/Disable SSL for this virtual host.
		SSLEngine on

		#   A self-signed (snakeoil) certificate can be created by installing
		#   the ssl-cert package. See
		#   /usr/share/doc/apache2/README.Debian.gz for more info.
		#   If both key and certificate are stored in the same file, only the
		#   SSLCertificateFile directive is needed.

		#   Server Certificate Chain:
		#   Point SSLCertificateChainFile at a file containing the
		#   concatenation of PEM encoded CA certificates which form the
		#   certificate chain for the server certificate. Alternatively
		#   the referenced file can be the same as SSLCertificateFile
		#   when the CA certificates are directly appended to the server
		#   certificate for convinience.
		SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache2/cert/oaphy.com.crt
                SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache2/cert/oaphy.com_key.key
                SSLCertificateChainFile /etc/apache2/cert/ca_bundle.crt

		#   Certificate Authority (CA):
		#   Set the CA certificate verification path where to find CA
		#   certificates for client authentication or alternatively one
		#   huge file containing all of them (file must be PEM encoded)
		#   Note: Inside SSLCACertificatePath you need hash symlinks
		#		 to point to the certificate files. Use the provided
		#		 Makefile to update the hash symlinks after changes.
		#SSLCACertificatePath /etc/ssl/certs/
		#SSLCACertificateFile /etc/apache2/ssl.crt/ca-bundle.crt

		#   Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL):
		#   Set the CA revocation path where to find CA CRLs for client
		#   authentication or alternatively one huge file containing all
		#   of them (file must be PEM encoded)
		#   Note: Inside SSLCARevocationPath you need hash symlinks
		#		 to point to the certificate files. Use the provided
		#		 Makefile to update the hash symlinks after changes.
		#SSLCARevocationPath /etc/apache2/ssl.crl/
		#SSLCARevocationFile /etc/apache2/ssl.crl/ca-bundle.crl

		#   Client Authentication (Type):
		#   Client certificate verification type and depth.  Types are
		#   none, optional, require and optional_no_ca.  Depth is a
		#   number which specifies how deeply to verify the certificate
		#   issuer chain before deciding the certificate is not valid.
		#SSLVerifyClient require
		#SSLVerifyDepth  10

		#   SSL Engine Options:
		#   Set various options for the SSL engine.
		#   o FakeBasicAuth:
		#	 Translate the client X.509 into a Basic Authorisation.  This means that
		#	 the standard Auth/DBMAuth methods can be used for access control.  The
		#	 user name is the `one line' version of the client's X.509 certificate.
		#	 Note that no password is obtained from the user. Every entry in the user
		#	 file needs this password: `xxj31ZMTZzkVA'.
		#   o ExportCertData:
		#	 This exports two additional environment variables: SSL_CLIENT_CERT and
		#	 SSL_SERVER_CERT. These contain the PEM-encoded certificates of the
		#	 server (always existing) and the client (only existing when client
		#	 authentication is used). This can be used to import the certificates
		#	 into CGI scripts.
		#   o StdEnvVars:
		#	 This exports the standard SSL/TLS related `SSL_*' environment variables.
		#	 Per default this exportation is switched off for performance reasons,
		#	 because the extraction step is an expensive operation and is usually
		#	 useless for serving static content. So one usually enables the
		#	 exportation for CGI and SSI requests only.
		#   o OptRenegotiate:
		#	 This enables optimized SSL connection renegotiation handling when SSL
		#	 directives are used in per-directory context.
		#SSLOptions +FakeBasicAuth +ExportCertData +StrictRequire
		<FilesMatch "\.(cgi|shtml|phtml|php)$">
				SSLOptions +StdEnvVars
		</FilesMatch>
		<Directory /usr/lib/cgi-bin>
				SSLOptions +StdEnvVars
		</Directory>

		#   SSL Protocol Adjustments:
		#   The safe and default but still SSL/TLS standard compliant shutdown
		#   approach is that mod_ssl sends the close notify alert but doesn't wait for
		#   the close notify alert from client. When you need a different shutdown
		#   approach you can use one of the following variables:
		#   o ssl-unclean-shutdown:
		#	 This forces an unclean shutdown when the connection is closed, i.e. no
		#	 SSL close notify alert is send or allowed to received.  This violates
		#	 the SSL/TLS standard but is needed for some brain-dead browsers. Use
		#	 this when you receive I/O errors because of the standard approach where
		#	 mod_ssl sends the close notify alert.
		#   o ssl-accurate-shutdown:
		#	 This forces an accurate shutdown when the connection is closed, i.e. a
		#	 SSL close notify alert is send and mod_ssl waits for the close notify
		#	 alert of the client. This is 100% SSL/TLS standard compliant, but in
		#	 practice often causes hanging connections with brain-dead browsers. Use
		#	 this only for browsers where you know that their SSL implementation
		#	 works correctly.
		#   Notice: Most problems of broken clients are also related to the HTTP
		#   keep-alive facility, so you usually additionally want to disable
		#   keep-alive for those clients, too. Use variable "nokeepalive" for this.
		#   Similarly, one has to force some clients to use HTTP/1.0 to workaround
		#   their broken HTTP/1.1 implementation. Use variables "downgrade-1.0" and
		#   "force-response-1.0" for this.
		# BrowserMatch "MSIE [2-6]" \
		#		nokeepalive ssl-unclean-shutdown \
		#		downgrade-1.0 force-response-1.0
               
	</VirtualHost>
</IfModule>

# vim: syntax=apache ts=4 sw=4 sts=4 sr noet

<IfModule mod_ssl.c>
        <VirtualHost _default_:443>
        
                DocumentRoot /var/www/html/futures
                ServerName futures.oaphy.com
                ServerName futures.oaphy.com
                SSLEngine on
                SSLCertificateFile /etc/apache2/cert/oaphy.com.crt
                SSLCertificateKeyFile /etc/apache2/cert/oaphy.com_key.key
                SSLCertificateChainFile /etc/apache2/cert/ca_bundle.crt
        </VirtualHost>
</IfModule>
 

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