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Lambda在线 > 云计算的特点和好处有哪些?

云计算的特点和好处有哪些?

2018-03-27
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这是 GHBD 的第 20 篇文章


GHBD | 旨在推广医疗大数据与人工智能的发展

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Essential Characteristics of Cloud Computing

云计算的基本特性


GHBD 编译 | 来源于 Cloud Standards Customer Council


云计算的特点和好处有哪些?


“医疗 + 云”


云计算在各个领域都有很大的作为,医院不再让数据沉睡,把信息资料上传在云平台是未来的趋势。


医院 IT 基础的医疗资源整合和扩张,需要一种简单、弹性、快捷、低成本的新方式,而云计算的重要价值,在于计算能力,而不仅仅是存储。


目前云计算在医疗上应用的阻碍是什么?如何在云存储里实现医疗信息的安全保障呢?目前的解决方案都是什么呢?




01 Broad network access

广泛的网络访问


A feature where the physical and virtual resources are available over a network and accessed through standard mechanisms that promote use by heterogeneous client platforms. The focus of this key characteristic is that cloud computing offers an increased level of convenience in that users can access physical and virtual resources from wherever they need to work, as long as it is network accessible, using a wide variety of clients including devices such as mobile phones, tablets, laptops, and workstations;


通过网络提供物理和虚拟资源,并通过标准机制来访问,促进异构客户端平台的使用。这个关键特性的焦点在于,云计算提供了更高水平的便利性。因为用户使用各种各样的客户端,包括手机、平板电脑、笔记本和工作站等设备,只要可以访问网络,就可以从他们需要工作的任何地方访问物理和虚拟资源;





02 Measured service

可计量的服务


A feature where the metered delivery of cloud services is such that usage can be monitored, controlled, reported, and billed. This is an important feature needed to optimize and validate the delivered cloud service. The focus of this characteristic is that the customer may only pay for the resources that they use. From the customer's perspective, cloud computing offers the users value by enabling a switch from a low efficiency and asset utilization business model to a high efficiency one;


计量交付云服务的功能,可以监控、控制、报告和计费。这是优化和验证交付的云服务所需的重要功能。这个关键特性的焦点是,客户可以只为他们使用的资源付费。从客户的角度来看,云计算通过实现从低效率和资产利用业务模式,到高效率模式的切换,为用户带来价值;





03 Multi-tenancy

多租户


A feature where physical or virtual resources are allocated in such a way that multiple tenants and their computations and data are isolated from and inaccessible to one another. Typically, and within the context of multi-tenancy, the group of cloud service users that form a tenant will all belong to the same cloud service customer organization. There might be cases where the group of cloud service users involves users from multiple different cloud service customers, particularly in the case of public cloud and community cloud deployments. However, a given cloud service customer organization might have many different tenancies with a single cloud service provider representing different groups within the organization;


物理资源或虚拟资源的分配方式,使得多个租户的计算和数据,与另一个租户相隔离并无法访问。通常,在多租户环境中,形成租户的云服务用户组,都将属于同一个云服务客户组织。也可能云服务用户群是由来自多个不同云服务客户组织的用户,特别是在公共云和社区云部署的情况下。然而,给定的云服务客户组织可能与代表组织内不同组的单一服务提供商,有许多不同的租约;





04 On-demand self-service

按需自助服务


A feature where a cloud service customer can provision computing capabilities, as needed, automatically or with minimal interaction with the cloud service provider. The focus of this key characteristic is that cloud computing offers users a relative reduction in costs, time, and effort needed to take an action, since it grants the user the ability to do what they need, when they need it, without requiring additional human user interactions or overhead;


云服务客户,可以根据需要自动配置计算能力,或通过与云服务提供商进行最少的交互来获得服务。这一关键特性的焦点在于,云计算帮助用户相对降低了所需的成本、时间和工作量。因为它授予用户在需要的时间能够使用他们需要的功能,而无需额外的人工交互。




05 Rapid elasticity and scalability

快速的弹性和可扩展性


A feature where physical or virtual resources can be rapidly and elastically adjusted, in some cases automatically, to quickly increase or decrease resources. For the cloud service customer, the physical or virtual resources available for provisioning often appear to be unlimited and can be purchased in any quantity at any time automatically, subject to constraints of service agreements. Therefore, the focus of this key characteristic is that cloud computing means that the customers no longer need to worry about limited resources and might not need to worry about capacity planning;


物理或虚拟资源可以快讯无损调整的功能,在某些情况下可自动调整,以快速增加或减少资源。对于云服务客户而言,可供应的物理或虚拟资源通常不受限制,并且可以在任何时间自动购买任何数量,并受到服务协议的约束。因此,这个关键特性的焦点是云计算意味着客户不再需要担心有限的资源,并且不需要担心容量规划




06 Resource pooling

资源池


A feature where a cloud service provider's physical or virtual resources can be aggregated in order to serve one or more cloud service customers. The focus of this key characteristic is that cloud service providers can support multi-tenancy while at the same time using abstraction to mask the complexity of the process from the customer. From the customer's perspective, all they know is that the service works, while they generally have no control or knowledge over how the resources are being provided or where the resources are located. This offloads some of the customer's original workload, such as maintenance requirements, to the provider. Even with this level of abstraction, it should be pointed out that users might still be able  to specify location at a higher level of abstraction (e.g., country, state, or data center).


云服务提供商的物理或虚拟资源可以聚合,以便为一个或多个云服务客户提供服务。这一关键特性的焦点是云服务提供商可以支持多租户,同时利用抽象来掩盖客户流程的复杂性。从客户的角度来看,他们所知道的是服务是有效的,而他们通常没有控制或不知道如何提供资源或资源位于何处。这将客户的一些原始工作负载(如维护需求)转移给提供商。即使有这样的抽象层次,应该指出的是,用户仍然可以在更高的抽象层次上指定位置(例如国家,州或数据中心)。




Refer to the ISO/IEC 17788 standard [2] for more details on cloud computing characteristics, roles, deployment models and service models.


有关云计算的特性、角色、部署模型和服务模型的更多详细信息,请参阅 ISO/ IEC 17788 标准[2]。


云计算的特点和好处有哪些?




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The Benefits of Cloud Computing

云计算的好处

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In addition to providing access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., networks, serves and storage), cloud computing promotes a loosely coupled, composable and highly resuable services environment for agile application development and roll-out. Because virtual instances and supporting services can be provisioned and terminated at any time and the customer organization pays only for the computing resources they are employing, costs can be lower, and they are paid "as you go", not as an upfront capital expenditure.


除了提供对可配置计算资源(例如网络,服务器和存储)的共享池的访问外,云计算还为敏捷应用程序的开发和推出,提供了松散耦合,可组合,且高度可重用的服务环境。由于虚拟实例和支持服务可随时进行配置和终止,而客户组织只支付他们正在使用的计算资源,所以成本可能更低,并且“随时”支付,而不是作为前期资本的支出。



Cloud computing enables business agility. Cloud computing provides the ability to make use of computing resources on an immediate basis, rather than a need to first invest time and skilled resources in designing and implementing infrastructure (hardware and middleware) and/or applications, and then deploying and testing it. This leads to faster time to value which may mean greater revenue, larger market share, or other benefits.


云计算支持业务敏捷性。云计算提供了立即使用计算资源的能力,而不是需要在设计和实施基础设施(硬件和中间件)和/或应用程序中投入时间和技术资源,然后部署和测试它。这产生更快的价值时间,这意味着更多的收入,更大的市场份额或其他收益。



云计算的特点和好处有哪些?


In essence, the top six benefits of cloud computing can be summarized as follows:


实质上,云计算的前六大优势可以概况如下:


  • Achieve economies of scale. Increase volume output or productivity with fewer resources (computing and human).

  • 实现规模经济。用更少的资源(计算和人力)提高产量和生产力。


  • Reduce CapEx by moving to OpEx. The "pay as you go" operational expenditure (OpEx) model, based on demand / utility computing, will help reduce capital expenditure (CapEx) on hardware and software licenses.

  • 转向 OpEx 降低资本支出。基于需求/效用计算的“随用随付”运营支出(OpEx)模型,将有助于降低硬件和软件许可证的资本支出。


  • Improve access. Information access can be anytime, anywhere and anyhow through omnichannel access.

  • 改进访问。信息访问可以随时随地通过全渠道访问。


  • Implement agile development at low cost. Design, development and rollout of new solutions and services using agile methodologies on cloud-based shared development operations.

  • 以低成本实现敏捷开发。使用基于云的共享开发操作的敏捷方法来设计,开发和推出新的解决方案和服务。


  • Leverage the global workforce. A "fellow-the-sun" model can provide 24x7 resources for defining, developing and rolling out new solutions. Cloud computing can be rolled out in multiple data centers around the globe, ensuring that services are close to end users — providing better performance, customer services, and appropriate redundancy.

  • 利用全球劳动力。“追随太阳”模式可以提供 24 x 7资源来定义、开发和推出新的解决方案。云计算可以在全球多个数据中心推出,确保服务接近最终用户 — 提供更好的性能、客户服务和适当的冗余。


  • Gain access to advanced capabilities. Many of the latest advances in software (such as AI, Blockchain, Data Mining) are available off-the-shelf as cloud services, enabling an organization to gain the benefits of these  capabilities with minimal investment.

  • 获得高级功能。软件的许多最新进展 (如 AI,区块链,数据挖掘)都可以通过现成的云服务获得,从而使企业能够以最少的投资,获得这些功能的好处。



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What is the Importance of Standards-Based Cloud Computing

基于标准的云计算的重要性是什么?

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Standards-based cloud computing ensures that cloud services from multiple providers can readily interoperate, based on open standard interfaces. Standards, when appropriately applied, allow workloads to be readily moved from one cloud provider to a different one with minimum effort. Applications created for one cloud computing environment can be employed in another one, eliminating the need to rewrite or duplicate code.


基于标准的云计算,确保来自多个供应商的云服务可以基于开放标准接口,轻松实现互操作。标准适当应用后,可以轻松地将工作负载从一个云提供商转移到另一个云提供商。为一个云计算环境创建的应用程序,可以在另一个云计算环境中使用,无需重写或重复代码。


Many different standards have been proposed. Some permit various degrees of interoperability and portability, while others are in fact proprietary environments. Once a proprietary environment is selected, an organization will probably experience some degree of vendor lock-in. This means that integrating applications or services across differing proprietary cloud platforms is likely to require expensive and time-consuming work. The issues associated with lack of interoperability and portability are described in ISO/ IEC 19941 Cloud computing -- Interoperability and Portability [3].


已经提出了许多不同的标准。有些允许不同程度的互操作性和可移植性,而另一些实际上是专有环境。一旦选定专有环境,组织可能会经历某种程度的供应商锁定。这意味着在不同的专有云平台上集成应用程序或服务可能需要耗费大量时间和工作量。ISO/IEC 19941云计算 — 互操作性和可移植性[3] 描述了与缺乏互操作性和可移植性相关的问题。


Some of the proposed standards are based on open source initiatives, for example the Open Container Initiative [4]. This has the advantage of making all the code transparent, available for inspection, and more readily suited for an interoperable environment. However, whenever a new technology is attracting a great deal of attention, neither vendors nor customers are likely to wait for mature standards or rich open source environments. They tend to leverage the advantage of early adoption of emerging technology at the price of having to move to a standard (and perhaps an open source) environment at a later date.


一些提议的标准是基于开源倡议的,例如 Open Container Initiative [4]。这具有使所有代码透明、可用于检查,并且更适合于可互操作性的环境的优点。但是,每当一项新技术吸引大量注意力时,无论是供应商,还是客户都不愿意等待成熟的标准或丰富的开源环境。他们倾向于利用早期采用新兴技术的优势,但必须以不得不在晚些时候转向标准(也是是开源)环境为代价。



end 



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GHBD | 旨在推广医疗大数据和人工智能发展

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Global Healthcare Big Data

在已成功举办第二届环球医疗大数据研讨会(2017)、第一届国际云、移动和大数据研讨会(2015),并分别在斯坦福大学医学中心(2016)、香港大学(2016)和北京大学大数据中心(2017)举办了3次环球医疗大数据工作会议成果基础上。我们的目标是为国内外行业领域专家,搭建一个持续的国际平台,组成一个独特的专业群体,让政府机构、医疗从业者、科技研究人员和国内外学者等信息化专业人士从世界各地汇聚在一起相互交流未来医院 IT 发展的重要思想和成果。




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